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5 Common Issues And Problems Of Adolescent High School Development

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5 Common Issues And Problems Of Adolescent High School Development

Adolescents are derived from the Latin word adolescence which means to grow or grow into adulthood. Adolescence is a time when an individual has transitioned from one stage to the next and changes both emotions, body, interests, patterns of behavior, and also full of problems (Hurlock, 1998).

Therefore, teenagers are very vulnerable to having psychosocial problems, i.e. psychic or psychiatric problems arising from social change. While according to Paget (1211) by saying: "Psychologically, adolescence is the age in which individuals integrate with the adult community, the age in which the child no longer feels under the level of the older people but is within the same level, at least in the right matter..... Integration in society (adult) has an effective aspect, more or less related to the Puber period.... as well as the intellectual change that is plugged in... The distinctive intellectual transformation of this teen's way of thinking allows it to achieve integration in adult social relationships, which is, in fact, a common characteristic of this period of development. "

Adolescence is a period in the lives of people whose limits of age and role are often not very obvious. Puberty that was thought to be an early sign of youth is no longer valid as a benchmark or limitation for adolescents categorizing because the age of puberty that had occurred in the late teens (15-18) now occurs in the early dozen even before the age of 11 years.

A 10-year-old is probably already (or is) experiencing puberty but does not mean he can already be a teenager and is ready to face the adult world. He is not yet ready to face the real world of adults, although at the same time he is also not the children anymore. Unlike the toddlers whose development clearly can be measured, teenagers hardly have a definite developmental pattern.


To be able to understand the youth, it is necessary to be seen based on changes in those dimensions. As for the several dimensions that are the benchmark in adolescence, namely:

1. Biological Dimension

At a time when a child enters puberty marked with the first menstrual in the young woman or changes in the voice of the young man, biologically she has a huge change. Puberty makes a child suddenly have the ability to reproduce.

During puberty, a person's hormones become active in producing two types of hormones (gonadotrophins or gonadotrophic hormones) that are associated with growth, such as:
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH).

5 Common Issues And Problems Of Adolescent High School Development

In girls, both of these hormones stimulate the growth of estrogen and progesterone: two types of womanhood hormone. In boys, Luteinizing Hormone, also called Interstitial-Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH), stimulates the growth of testosterone.

The rapid growth of the hormones above changes the biological system of a child. Girls will get menstruation, as a sign that the reproduction system is active. Also, there are also physical changes such as breasts begin to develop, etc. Boys begin to show changes in the sounds, muscles, and other physical associated with the growth of testosterone hormones. Their physical form will change rapidly since the onset of puberty and will lead them to the teenage world.

2. Cognitive Dimension

The cognitive development of adolescents, given Jean Piaget (a cognitive development expert), is the last and highest period in the formal operations growth stage (period of formal operations).

In this period, ideally, teenagers already have their mindset in an attempt to solve complex and abstract problems. The youth's thinking ability develops in such a way that they can easily imagine many troubleshooting alternatives along with possible consequences or results. Their logical and abstract thinking capacity develops so that they can think multi-dimensional

3. Like A Scientist

The youth no longer accept the information as it is, but they will process that information and adapt it to their thoughts. They are also able to integrate past and present experiences to be transformed into a conclusion, predictions, and plans for the future. With these formal operational capabilities, teenagers can adapt themselves to their surroundings.

In reality, in developing countries (including Indonesia) there are still very many teenagers (even adults) who have not been able to fully reach this stage of cognitive development of formal operations. Some remain in the previous stage of development, namely concrete operations, where the mindset used is still very simple and has not been able to see the problems of various dimensions. This could be the result of an education system in Indonesia that does not use a one-way teaching and learning Method (lecture) and a lack of attention to the development of children's thinking.

Other causes can also be caused by parents ' foster patterns that tend to still treat teenagers as children so that children do not have the freedom to fulfill developmental tasks according to their age and mentality. It should be, a teenager should be able to achieve an abstract level of thought so that when they graduate in high school, it is accustomed to think critically and be able to analyze problems and find the best solution.

4. Moral Dimension

Adolescence is the period in which one begins to wonder about the various phenomena occurring in the surrounding environment as a basis for the establishment of their self-esteem. Elliot Turiel (1978) stated that teenagers began to make their judgments in the face of problems – popular problems relating to their environment, for example, Politics, humanity, war, social conditions, and so on.

The youth no longer receive the rigid, simple, and absolute thought results that were given to them during this time without reputation. Youth begin to question the validity of existing thinking and weigh more alternatives. Critically, teenagers will take more observations and compare them with things that were taught and implanted to him.

Most of the youth begin to see any other "reality" outside of that as long as it is known and believed. He will see that there are many aspects to seeing life and a variety of other types of thoughts. For him, the world became wider and often confusing, especially if he was accustomed to being educated in a certain environment only during his childhood.

The ability to think in the moral reasoning in adolescents develops as they begin to see the gaffe and imbalances between those who believe in the reality of the surrounding. They then felt the need to question and reconstruct the mindset with a new "reality." This change is often the underlying attitude of the youth "rebellion" to rules or authorities that have been unanimously accepted.

The role of parents or educators is great in providing an alternative answer to the things questioned by his teenage daughters. Wise parents will give more than one answer and an alternative so that the youth can think further and choose the best. Parents who are not able to give the explanation wisely and be stiff will make the youth to be confused. The youth will look for answers outside the circle of parents and their values. This can be dangerous if the "new environment" gives unwanted or conflicting answers to those given by the parent. Conflicts with parents may start to sharpen.

5. Psychological Dimensions

Adolescence is a turbulent time. At this time the mood (mood) can change very quickly. The results of the study in Chicago by Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi and Reed Larson (1984) found that the average teen needs only 45 minutes to change from the mood of "Happy delight" to "sadly incredible", while adults need a few hours for the same thing.

Drastic swings in teenagers are often due to the burden of homework, school work, or daily activities at home. Although the adolescent mood is rapidly changing quickly, it is not necessarily a symptom or psychological problem.

The young woman will be in for hours in front of the mirror because she believes people will glance and be attracted to her beauty, while the young men will imagine herself being admired for her opposite type if she looks unique and "great". At the age of 16 and older, the eccentricities of adolescents will diminish on their own if they are often faced with the real world.

At that time, the youth will begin to realize that others have their world and are not always the same as the one faced or thought of. The young assumption that they were always noticed by others then became unfounded. At this time, teenagers began to be faced with reality and the challenge of customizing their dreams and wishful thinking with reality.

Young men also often think of themselves as self-righteous, so they often look "unthought-about" from their deeds. Impulsive action is often performed; Partly because they are unconscious and have not yet commonly accounted for short-term or long-term consequences.

Youth who are allowed to take their actions will grow into more cautious, more confident and accountable adults. This sense of confidence and responsibility is much needed as the basis for the establishment of positive self-esteem in teenagers. Someday, it will grow with a positive judgment on oneself and respect for others and the environment. Guidance of the person

Older is needed by teenagers as a reference to how to deal with the problem as a "new person"; Various counsel and various ways will be sought for the temptation.

Teenagers will imagine what his "idol" would do to solve such a problem. This idol selection will also be very important for teenagers from some dimension of change that occurs in adolescents as described above then there are possible behaviors that can occur at this time.

Among them are behaviors that invite risk and negatively impact adolescents. Behavior that invites risks in adolescence such as the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances, social activities that change spouses and behaviors against hazards such as racing, air surfing, and hanging kites (Kaplan and Sadock, 1997).

The reason the behavior that invites risk is various and is associated with conterphobic dynamic, fear is considered incompetent, it is necessary to assert masculine identities and group dynamics such as peer pressure. 

That is an article about Common Issues And Problems Of Adolescent High School Development. I hope it will be useful and give an added value to you.

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